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In Press

Articles in press (accepted for publication) are made available online in this section pending the publication of the full issue. All available articles have been subjected to the Journal’s double-blind evaluation process.

These articles may be cited using the following information: Names, first names of author(s), title of article, year of publication

Outcomes and Lessons Learned of the Implementation of a Support Program for Families (OASIS+)
Élise Milot, Marie Grandisson, Sarah Martin-Roy, Fanny Leblanc

Research Framework: In Quebec, parents with a child who has an intellectual disability (ID) or autism have many unmet needs for respite and support for social participation. This article focuses on OASIS+, an experimental support program designed to meet such needs by working with students from professional training programs.

Objectives: This research aims to document the benefits of the OASIS+ experimental program for families and students, and to identify the lessons learned during its implementation.

Methodology: A mixed method approach was used with measures taken before, during and after the experimental program with parents, students, and advisory committee members.

Results: Seventeen families and ten social work and occupational therapy students participated in the OASIS+ program between September 2019 and March 2020. Of those accompanied, 41% had ID, 35% had autism and 24% had a dual diagnosis. Results indicate the following benefits for parents: decreased in the feeling of parental overload, an improvement in their social participation, and a better reconciliation of their family, social and professional roles. Students perceived an improvement in their knowledge and skills. Lessons learned include recruitment, pairing, student training and support, services delivered, coordination, and program sustainability

Conclusions: OASIS+ is an innovative program that supports families who have a child with ID or autism while helping to train future professionals.

Contribution: An evaluation of programs has shown the contribution of OASIS+ in supporting families and has identified key elements to consider in its implementation.

Mots-clés: family, respite, program evaluation, intellectual disability, autism, children with disabilities

New partnerships in their sixties: renewed possibilities?
Chloé Dauphinais

Research Framework: Based upon my master research in sociology, this article focuses on the experiences of people who have formed new partnerships in their sixties and more specifically the chosen conjugal arrangements adopted.

Objectives: These conjugal experiences are explored in order to deepen our understanding of conjugality by taken into account their temporality. Interest was given to the trajectories of these couples as well as to the dimension of pooling and cohabitation in relation to the different arrangements of daily life.

Methodology: The analyses are derived from ten individual life stories and comprehensive interviews. They were conducted with people whose partnerships were formed between the age of 60 and 68 years old.

Results: Forming a new relationship later in life appeared to these partners as a favourable period for a fulfilling love life, freed from several pressures associated with adulthood. The baggage of past experiences can act as emotional, relational, and material resources in these relationships. They are marked by the sharing and necessarily imply a management of daily life, which requires the partners to find the “right distance” (between management and personal time, as well as conjugal space).

Conclusions: Being in a partnership always involves sharing, regardless of the type of conjugality. The balance between fusion and autonomy has the potential to be articulated in

different living and relationship arrangements especially in later life.

Contribution: These results show the importance of taking into account the ages of life in the study of conjugality and how life trajectories influence conjugal choices, including those related to cohabitation.

Mots-clés: conjugality, common-law union, cohabitation, elderly partners, aging, life stories

Giving Remote Help: Reconciling Distance and Filial Duty to an Elderly Parent in Martinique
Myrtille Ferné

Research framework: This study addresses the issues faced by relatives living far from Martinique when their elderly parents become dependent, in a context where social and moral norms continue to make them the main actors of the elderly care.

Objectives: The theory of declining intergenerational solidarity should be qualified by focusing instead on the structural vulnerability issues faced by remote families in Martinique.

Methodology: Semi-directive interviews were conducted with three family caregivers living outside of Martinique. The analysis looks at the evolution of personal trade-offs and the types of resources mobilized to try to reconcile the duty of solidarity and autonomy with distance.

Results: The fragile balance that makes it possible to provide for the needs of an elderly parent at a distance is certainly due to the moral arbitration of relatives, but also to their ability to visit the place often, to find relays and to adapt to the ever-evolving situation. Due to the inadequacy of the public aid system, relatives have been forced to resort to free and/or undeclared help from women, reproducing a “chain of care” based on socio-economic and gender inequalities, or even to relocate to the detriment of their personal autonomy.

Conclusion: The migratory and demographic situation in Martinique is rooted in the asymmetrical (post-)colonial relations between France and its overseas territories. The resulting weakening of intergenerational relations of mutual aid poses a challenge to the precariousness of the living conditions of Martinique’s elderly.

Contribution: This work highlights the issues of the “family at a distance” in terms of assistance to the elderly and enriches the literature on “left-behind elderly” in the little-explored context of ageing Martinique.

Mots-clés: ageing, family at a distance, home care, Family caregiver, intergenerational relationship, public policy, Martinique

The photo album: an emotional family?
Doriane Molay

Research framework: With the democratization of photography, the practice of keeping a family album has become widespread. Objects produced from snapshots, texts, drawings and collages have imposed themselves as founding structures of unique affective communities. Yet, since this practice has entered the field of research, this medium has only been considered in terms of sociology leaving aside the study of forms, as well as in terms of artistic disciplines, thus projecting a particularism preventing any hermeneutics.

Objectives: This article aims to reread the practice of family album through its materiality so as to apprehend its significance for the subjects represented within a group whose specificities we must understand.

Methodology: In order to do this, we will rely on the collections of the Niepce Museum (Burgundy, France) and the consultation of nearly a thousand items, 219 of which form the core, mainly French photographic albums produced between 1880 and 1980.

Results: This research observes the important fragmentation of the album space, which it will consider as a place that gathers, preserves and secures the sensitive expression of a fantasized family. It also examines the album through the prism of play and the experiments in social relationships that it allows.

Conclusion: Thus, the album is at the heart of the discipline, social aesthetics, and sociological dimensions, which confirms their co-dependence and testifies to the expressive scope of the object itself.

Contribution: To our knowledge, no study has considered a sufficiently large corpus of relics and disciplines are often dissociated by research in order to consider the family album in its entirety, for its form and its content.

Mots-clés: family configuration, identity building, symbolic order, perceptions, family photograph, spatial practice, public/private, life stories

Motivations for male couples to adopt in Quebec and their preference for age, sex, and ethnic origin of the child
Éric Feugé, Thomas Girard-Pelletier, Charlotte Dupont

Research Framework: Compared to lesbian women, gay men face more barriers that may hinder their intention to parent. In addition to biological constraints, they live in a heterosexist society that traditionally places the role of caregiver to women. The gay community often defines itself outside of parenting. In Quebec, thanks to Bill 84 of 2002, same-sex couples have access to domestic adoption through Child Protective Services (CPS), which allows them to choose several characteristics of their child.

Objectives: The aim of the study is to examine the genesis of the desire for fatherhood of male couples in Quebec and their motivations for choosing domestic adoption over another mode of access to parenthood, as well as their preference for the age, sex and ethnic origin of their child.

Methodology: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixty-nine fathers met in their home. The interview transcripts were thematically analyzed with Nvivo.

Results: The results indicate that a majority of fathers have had a strong desire for fatherhood for a very long time and chose adoption mainly out of altruistic consideration. Most fathers did not have a preference for the characteristics of their children except for age (under 2 years old). When preferences were expressed, they were mostly for white boys.

Conclusion: The discussion highlights that in the discourse of these gay men, their desire for parenthood does not seem to stand out from that of other fathers, but that heteronormativity impacts their motivations to become adoptive fathers. Gender stereotypes and intersectionality are also discussed to explain preferences related to children’s gender and ethnicity.

Contribution: This study addresses the lack of data on gay adoptive fathers in Quebec. It will help to dispel any preconceptions that they may have about the adoption process.

Mots-clés: adoptive gay fathers, heteronormativity, intersectionality, gender, ethnic background

Individual Characteristics of Parents Involved in a High-Conflict Divorce: Perceptions of Psychosocial and Judicial Professionals
Amylie Paquin-Boudreau, Karine Poitras, Élisabeth Godbout, Francine Cyr

Research Framework: Families in high conflict separation situations disproportionately use the courts, lawyers and psychosocial resources, and use multiple systems simultaneously. Professionals feel powerless to intervene with them and to tend to hold negative perceptions about them. The individual characteristics they perceive in parents must be studied because of their importance in understanding both the interpersonal dynamics of these parents and the challenges of professional intervention.

Objectives: This study aims to identify the perceptions of legal and psychosocial professionals regarding the individual characteristics of parents involved in high conflict situations.

Methodology: A thematic content analysis was conducted on two types of documents, including the files kept by the psychotherapists participating in the Parenting-Conflict-Resolution protocol and the court decisions rendered in family situations that were admitted to the same protocol.

Results: The discourse of judges and psychologists reveals their perception of the individual characteristics of parents involved in high conflict family separations, such as distrust, opposition, lack of empathy, impulsiveness, lack of introspection and self-criticism, and immature defense mechanisms.

Conclusions: This article highlights the perceptions of legal and psychosocial professionals regarding individual characteristics of parents involved in high conflict situations. Our results show how these individual characteristics might generate difficulties in interpersonal relationships and impact their use of the various psychosocial and legal systems.

Contribution: The results of this study document the perceptions of legal and psychosocial professionals regarding the individual characteristics of parents experiencing high conflict separation, which supports reflections on the needs of these families and the challenges faced by the legal and psychosocial service systems with them.

Mots-clés: family, marital separation, family conflict, psychology, justice system

Adultism as a critical analysis tool: an example applied to socio-judicial intervention with young people living in a context of domestic violence
Pamela Alvarez-Lizotte, Caroline Caron

Research Framework: In this article, we propose a theoretical and critical analysis of the social relationship of age, in light of a concept that has emerged from critical social perspectives in recent decades, namely adultism.

Objectives: We have two objectives: 1) to conceptualize adultism as a system of oppression that results in epistemic injustices and 2) to exemplify how adultism can manifest itself today, by applying the analysis to socio-judicial intervention with young people living in the context of domestic violence (DV).

Methodology: We deconstruct youth-adult social relationships as they are known in Quebec by conducting a theoretical and critical analysis based on the work of Collins (2000) and the emerging literature on adultism.

Results: Adultism is a system of oppression formed, developed and perpetuated by four interrelated domains of power: hegemonic, structural, disciplinary and interpersonal. In socio-judicial intervention, these domains of power constitute a major obstacle to the recognition of the epistemic agency of youth living in the context of DV. Adultism contributes to discrediting and marginalizing the voices of these youth; as a result, their views are not always sought, heard, or considered in decisions made about their custody and father-child contact.

Conclusion: Through the four domains of power, adultism contributes to young people’s experience of epistemic injustice and poses barriers to the recognition of their agency.

Contribution: The article highlights the potential for social transformation of a better recognition of adultism, particularly in the intervention with young people living in the context of DV, as well as the relevance of its use as a tool for critical analysis.

Mots-clés: adultism, age social relations, childhood, adolescence, domestic violence, separation, socio-judicial intervention

Young Adults’ Agency Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Supported by Use of the Life History Calendar
Annie Dumont, Geneviève Lessard, Pamela Alvarez-Lizotte, Anaïs Pellerin, Simon Lapierre

Research framework: This article is based on two studies of young adults who were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) in childhood or adolescence. These studies focused on their life course and their views of intimate partner violence.

Objectives: The article documents the types of agency enacted by the young adults interviewed, through their life course. It also explores the extent to which the use of the Life History Calendar (LHC) in the research can help empower these young adults over the way they tell their stories.

Methodology: Semi-structured qualitative interviews, supported by the LHC, were conducted with 63 young people aged 18 to 25 who had been exposed to intimate partner violence. Their agency was analyzed using Hitlin and Elder’s (2007) typology.

Results: The identity agency strategies described by the participants relate largely to actions that allow them to protect themselves from violence in their daily life. The pragmatic agency and life course agency allowed them to face new situations and to project themselves into a better future. Their participation in the research is also part of their agentive strategies.

Conclusions: The retrospective view adopted by the participants leads them to describe the meaning they gave to the agentive strategies used to counter their experience with exposition to IPV and its short- and long-term consequences. In addition to generating new knowledge about exposition to IPV, the methodology used allows a reappropriation of their life story by young adults involved, who can explain the meaning of their actions or decisions.

Contribution: Considering young adults who have experienced exposure to IPV as actors in their life course contributes to giving them a voice and taking their points of view into account in the decisions that concern them.

Mots-clés: agency, exposure to intimate partner violence, young adult, life course

One is not born a beauty, one becomes one: maternal responsibility and the transmission of the care for beauty in Taiwan
Amélie Keyser-Verreault

Research Framework: In Taiwan, parents are increasingly concerned about their childen’s future and deliberately invest in their future competitiveness. In a highly competitive environment where female beauty can bring many material and immaterial benefits, mothers are encouraged to transmit some aesthetic values and behaviors to their daughters.

ObjectiveThis paper aims to analyze the little-studied phenomenon of the transmission of beauty care by mothers to their daughters in the Taiwanese neoliberal context.

Methodology: To do so, we mobilized a qualitative methodology based upon 70 semi-structured interviews and participant observation in Taiwan between 2014 and 2017. 

ResultsOur research showed that, in order to maximize their chances of success in their personal, marital, professional and social life, beauty is seen by women as a decisive asset. Mothers are then held accountable to teach their daughters to take care of their physical appearance. Three dominant themes emerged from the participants’ comments regarding this aesthetic training: moderating or reducing the appetite, having white skin, having a cute behavior and appearance.

Conclusions: The skills necessary for aesthetic work are learned from deliberate investment. Mothers have the responsability for this aesthetic training. This gendered and generational dimension of the training of future « aesthetic entrepreneurs » is decisive, but often invisibilized in discussions of neoliberal individualism.   

Contributions: Our research allows us to understand the new gendered modalities of parenting in a context where the children are considered as human capital in the making. 

Mots-clés: beauty, motherhood, eating attitude, neoliberalism, Taiwan, human capital, aesthetic entrepreneur

Work-family Reconciliation among Quebec Mothers and Fathers during the Pandemic: Findings and Recommendations for Quebec
Sophie Mathieu, Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

Research Framework: The health crisis resulted in difficult situations for many workers, but especially for parents, who had to reconcile their work and family activities while the children were at home.

Objectives: The objective of this research is to compare the work-family reconciliation of Quebec fathers and mothers before and during the pandemic.

Methodology: We use survey data collected from Quebec working parents in 2018, 2020 and 2021.

Results: Our results lead to three observations: 1) the existence of gendered effects of the pandemic on Quebec workers 2) the role of employers in the reduction of work-family conflict, and 3) a certain ease reported in work-family reconciliation during a pandemic.

Conclusions: The transition to telework has reduced time conflicts for many parents, and a larger proportion of them feel they have an easy work-family reconciliation in 2020 and 2021, than in 2018.

Contribution: Our research makes it possible to formulate recommendations to improve the support offered to Quebec families in terms of work-family balance.

Mots-clés: work-family reconciliation, mother, father, pandemic, COVID-19

COVID-19, lockdown and impact among Spanish university students: an exploratory analysis
Miguel David Guevara Espinar , Joseph Josy Lévy

Research framework: Using the theoretical frameworks of quality of life and the sociology of technology uses, this qualitative article explores the consequences of lockdown following the COVID-19 pandemic among Spanish students enrolled at the University of Salamanca.

Objectives: This article analyzes the impact of lockdown on the quality of life of university students in different spheres, such as residential, mental health, diet, alcohol and drug consumption, physical exercise, use of information and communication technologies (ICTs), academic work, financial repercussions and coping strategies.

Methodology: Exploratory interviews were conducted with 12 respondents (6 male and 6 female students) enrolled at the University of Salamanca on the impact of lockdown in the different spheres of life. The transcripts were coded and thematically analyzed to identify the salient dimensions, convergences and differences in the students’ experience.

Results: This study allowed us to identify the positive and negative repercussions of lockdown following the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life, to identify the repertoire of reactions to this extreme event in the different spheres of life, and in particular in the use of information and communication technologies at the social and academic level.

Conclusions: Our analysis allows us to conclude that the lockdown was not always a problematic period, but that it allowed the exploration of existential issues and new behaviours likely to contribute to personal development.

Contribution: This article contributes to the research on COVID-19 and university students from a qualitative perspective that is still not widely used in the growing literature on the pandemic.

Mots-clés: university student, Spain, COVID-19, lockdown, quality of life, information and communication technologie

‘‘I miss grandma and grandpa a lot’’. Impacts of socio-health measures on the relationship between grandparents and grandchildren
Isabel Côté, Christine Gervais, Sophie Doucet, Vicky Lafantaisie

Research Framework: The pandemic has disrupted the daily lives of families for over a year. In addition to the fears and uncertainties associated with COVID-19, the pandemic has required the redefinition of many daily routines, including leisure activities, access to services, work, schooling and interpersonal relationships. Children, who are unlikely to have COVID-19, have nonetheless experienced the impact of social and health measures put in place to address it.

Objectives: Using a child-based approach, this article seeks to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting social and health measures have affected the lives of families, particularly the grandparents/grandchildren relationship.

Methodology: This study uses a longitudinal qualitative design with three measurement times according to the various key moments of the pandemic. A total of 154 children and adolescents were interviewed three times in semi-structured interviews via Zoom.

Results: The results highlights the ways in which grandchildren and grandparents adapted to maintain their relationship during the pandemic. From this study, we find that grandchildren are concerned about their grandparents’ health, but still want face-to-face contact with them, despite the risks.

Conclusions: The relationship between grandchildren and their grandparents is an emotional and lasting one that endures and adapts in times of crisis.

Contribution: This article gives an account of the importance of grandparents in the lives of their grandchildren, particularly in times of crisis. It also provides a better understand of how families have adapted during the pandemic.

Mots-clés: grandparents, child, adolescent, family, family ties, COVID-19

Challenges and delights of being together. Why living the health crisis lockdowns with family is revealing the singularities and tensions of the contemporary French family
Evelyne Barthou, Yann Bruna Bruna

Research Framework: This article is based on the TRANSICOVID research which aims to collect people’s experience and feelings during the coronavirus health crisis and to measure their impact on social, ecological and digital transitions. 

Objectives: The objective is to demonstrate that the new experiences of (re)cohabitation together, by interrupting the residential autonomy of young adults, have generated real family opportunities, but also tensions, closely linked to the sudden and sometimes forced return to the parental home. 

Methodology: Our approach is mixed as we conducted a quantitative analysis (N=2 383) from young adults and their parents confined with them as well as a qualitative analysis (N=36) of semi-structured interviews with this same population.

Results: These (re)cohabitations, strongly differentiated according to family configurations and sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals, proved to be favourable to the strengthening of family ties, to common activities, but were also the object of more or less tacit compromises, negotiations and tensions, hence the necessity of respecting personal and collective spaces and times. 

Conclusions: The family, especially when it values respect for each person and horizontality, continues to be a central pillar in the construction of the self, ensuring in turn a role of reassurance, support, recognition and appreciation, but also distancing and empowerment. 

Contribution: This article sheds light on the transformations of the contemporary French family, in particular with regard to the tension between familialization and individuation. 

Mots-clés: work-family reconciliation, (re)cohabitation, residential experience, parenting, young adult, space, education, digital practice, social time

Shared activities and family sociabilities. The case of confined families with children aged 6 to 12
Catherine Dessinges

Research framework: The health crisis created by Covid 19 has tremendously changed the life of French people, especially the parents with children aged under 12 who had to reorganize their family routine to reinforce the family links.
Objective: This article presents the results of research on family shared activities during the lockdown and interrogate the forms and supports taken by the family sociability in and outside the home regarding a variety of socio-economic factors.
Methodology: The study uses a mixed-type methodology combining the results of a questionary survey conducted with 1731 parents of children aged between 6 and 12, with qualitative data from 20 individual phone interviews.
Results: The results of the research reveal, because of the spatial lockdown, a great increase in shared activities between parents and children with significant variations in leisure activities in regards to the parental gender, the socio familial factors, and the employment position. Intra-family sociabilities, on the other hand, have particularly encouraged the craze for audiovisual content, while information technology has been strongly mobilized to re-establish the link outside the home.
Conclusion: On the scale of families with children aged 6 to 12, the arrival of the Covid-19 has not only disrupted but also intensified and reshaped family social dynamics, with significant variations depending on family configurations. By insuring new uses driven by the absence of physical exchanges, digital communication technologies have carried out a dual technical and social mediation, both as a tool and instrument of sociabilities.
Contribution: By providing new insights into a major global health crisis, this article aims to better understand the impact of Covid 19 on family organizations. It thus contributes to sciences of education researches but also technology uses sociology, especially among young audiences and to sociological knowledge between digital practices and family life technology articulation.

Mots-clés: youth, family, home, networks, socialization, Internet, digital practice, online viewing

Work-Family Balance among University Employees Having Children Aged 11 or Less in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Eve Pouliot, Christiane Bergeron-Leclerc, Danielle Maltais, Jacques Cherblanc, Jacinthe Dion, Pascale Dubois, Ann-Sophie Simard, Gabrielle Ross, Anne-Renée Gravel, Oscar Labra, Cathy Vaillancourt, Taha Abderrafie Moalla

Research Framework: Although all Quebec residents have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and by the health and social measures put in place since March 2020, working parents have been particularly affected by the various stressors caused by this crisis, in both their family and professional life. In such a context, it seems relevant to examine the consequences of the pandemic on work-family balance, and more specifically on the factors associated with it.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to document the personal, family and work characteristics associated with work-family balance among university employees with children aged 11 or younger in the context of the pandemic.

Methodology: The data used for this study were collected between April 24 and June 5, 2020, through an online survey. A total of 217 staff members from ten institutions of the Quebec University Network completed the survey, which included questions related to work-family balance. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the respective influence of factors associated with the work-family balance.

Results: Overall, this study shows that university employees having children aged 11 or younger present a majority of moderate to high work-family conflict in the context of the pandemic. It also highlights some of the factors that may help or hinder work-family balance in this population of parents, namely level of parenting strain, satisfaction with sharing childcare and parenting duties, job category, stability of job performance, and number of young school-aged children.

Conclusions: These findings underscore the importance of implementing work and family support programs and respite measures for parents with young school-aged children to help them balance their family and work responsibilities in times of crisis.

Contribution: Although some studies have documented factors associated with work-family balance in times of pandemic, they remain few and only one has been conducted in the Quebec context. Work-family balance is likely to be experienced differently in Quebec, which is different from other countries in terms of its family policy. In addition, this study is the first to look at university employees, a group of workers who were among the first to be affected by the school closures in the spring of 2020.

Mots-clés: work-life balance, parent, pandemic, COVID-19

Change in Migration Status and Family, Work and Migration Issues: A Case Study
Monica Schlobach

Research framework: Migration in two stages, i.e. the transition from temporary resident to permanent resident, is becoming important as a migratory phenomenon in Canada and Quebec. It has repercussions in several spheres of migrants’ life, whether it be family, professional or migratory.

Objectives: This article seeks to explore the processes involved in the change of migration status of a Brazilian family in Quebec from temporary resident to permanent resident.

Methodology: The study used qualitative data from repeated interviews with the principal applicant, a professional in engineering, his spouse and children.

Results: Each of the children attended school in English for three years. Upon obtaining the Quebec Selection Certificate, each was forced to leave the English school and enroll in French school. This caused a break in their educational path and led to new constraints on their socio-professional mobility and in their parent’s plans for re-migration.

Conclusions: The denial of recognition is experienced by everyone as an ordeal, where each member of the family has been assigned the status of foreigner both at school and at work.

Contribution: This article sheds light on the family, professional and migratory status. It reveals some of the often invisible consequences of the Charter of the French language on the educational career of certain children of migrant parents and the professional and migratory trajectory of the parents.

Mots-clés: change of migratory status, educational path, two-stage migration, migrant family, highly qualified migrants, Charter of the French language

“Please Share Your Journeys”. Administrative Experiences of Family Reunification in France and Online Collective Strategies to Cope with Institutions
Julia Descamps

Research framework: French law guarantees on paper the “right to a normal family life” for immigrants, by allowing those legally residing in France to be joined by their spouse and children under 18.

Objectives: This article aims to study the way in which immigrants carry out the administrative procedures during a family reunification process, and how they adapt to them. It questions the conditions of the possible emergence of collective strategies for migrant families before the institution, in regard to a measure dedicated to the private sphere.

Methods: The analysis is based on observations in online “feedback” groups on the family reunification process, and semi-structured interviews conducted between September 2020 and January 2021 with members of these groups.

Results: The online groups constitute a bottom-up instance of socialization with regards to the right to family reunification and reveal a gendered sharing of administrative work. They are also the place for collective narratives and mobilizations that highlight the most successful paths.

Conclusions: Access to the right to family reunification should not be analyzed only at the level of the applicant, but also at the level of the couple and of collective mobilization. The community’s sharing has contrasting effects on the individual and collective experience of this right, from support to moral guidance of administrative careers.

Contribution: The article underlines the agency of migrant families to reunify under French law, and in particular the crucial role of spouses who have remained abroad, often considered as passive beneficiaries of family reunification. It invites reflection on the internalization by immigrants of the state’s selective norms for family immigration.

Mots-clés: migration policy, family reunification, law, France, electronic sociability, transnational family

The schooling experience of Syrian refugee children during exile: from transit to resettlement
Liyun Wan

Research framework: This article is based on an ethnographic survey conducted with a dozen Syrian refugee families who arrived in Strasbourg after 2011.

Objectives: We explain the children’s educational pathways, from Syria to France via transit countries (Lebanon, Turkey), in order to show the constraints of schooling during exile, as well as the different forms of family mobilization for access to rights and academic success for these children.

Methodology: This ethnographic study mobilizes qualitative methods such as “participant observation” and the collection of “life stories”.

Results: The educational constraints encountered in transit countries are linked to the limits of access to rights. These create gaps and put children behind in their schooling when they arrive in France. The obstacles posed by accumulated delays, the language and the contents taught sometimes lead to dead ends. Despite the difficulties, families are also actors who mobilize different resources to ensure that their children continue their education.

Conclusion: The successive constraints during exile lead to questions about educational institutions that evaluate and categorize students while forgetting their background. What could we consider in order to ensure equal treatment between children with different backgrounds?

Contribution: Starting from the numerous existing studies that deal with the educational constraints of refugee children from an institutional point of view, this research explores the family from the inside to show the point of view of its members. It links the institutional dimension to the family and individual dimension.

Mots-clés: syrian refugees, schooling, family mobilization, exile

Along migration trajectories: playing with legal status and recomposing identities
Morgann Barbara Pernot

Research Framework: Since 2015 and Yemen’s entry into the war, labour migration of Yemeni men to Djibouti has given way to multicausal migrations, particularly family migrations. This plurality of migratory paths is accompanied by a diversification of legal statuses within these families.

Objectives: By looking at the migratory trajectories of women and men over several generations, before and after the war, this article aims to understand how migrants’ relationships to legal status are constructed. It also aims to study the identity effects of these differences in status.

Methodology: The article is based on the study of migration trajectories collected during a six-month ethnography. It was conducted in Djibouti with several Yemeni families. The author carried out “observational participation”, conducted interviews and collected life stories.

Results: The migration trajectories of successive generations of Yemeni traders in Djibouti have long questioned the status of foreign workers and Djiboutian national, in terms of their material and identity implications, and the political context of the time. The new migratory trajectories of traders’ families lead to the deployment of a diversification’s strategy and accumulation of legal statuses – including access to refugee status – as well as a crystallization of the Yemeni identity.

Conclusions: Both strategic and identity-based, the relationships that migrant families maintain with legal status demonstrate their ability to act in the face of states, and political, social and economic contexts.

Contribution: Based on an original case study, this article contributes to the understanding of the transformations of migratory trajectories according to gender and generations, and to the enrichment of the knowledge of migratory strategies and their identity implications.

Mots-clés: migration, lifecourse, legal status, family, generation, gender, Yemen, Djibouti

Families between Mozambique and Germany: biographical trajectories of Mozambican migrants who arrived as contract workers in the German Democratic Republic (GDA)
Ines Grau

Research Framework: The article focuses on the pathways of former contract workers who came to the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from Mozambique under bilateral agreements between 1979 and 1990. These young adults were not allowed to start a family during their stay, which was by definition dedicated solely to work and training. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, only a minority of them remained in Germany. For some, family constellations played a decisive role in obtaining a residence permit.

Objectives: This article aims to highlight the impact of these Cold War-specific arrangements on individual life paths, and in particular on strategies for “making a family”.

Methodology: This on ongoing qualitative research is based on life stories collected during narrative interviews with former workers living in Germany today. Three case studies were chosen to examine, as examples, the ways of “making family” in this specific arrangement of contract work.

Results: This comparison shows that the prohibition to start a family was not a long-term obstacle for any of the three interviewees. Several strategies were observed, such as starting their family in Mozambique during their contractual work or postponing having a family in Germany until after the termination of their contracts in 1990 and onwards.

Conclusions: The family structures thus constructed are part of new transnational social spaces co-constructed by the interviewees. They are interwoven between Mozambique and Germany, which foster a multicultural belonging in their children and generate new forms of North-South mobility.

Contribution: This approach allows us to highlight the biographies of former Mozambican workers, in the context of their stay in the GDR, but also in a broader perspective covering their entire life path, from their childhood to the present day.

Mots-clés: contract work, cold war, Mozambique, Germany, transnational family spaces, biographical research

“Family Community”, “National Community”: The Effects of Legal Constructions on Family Socializations on North African families in France
Djamel Sellah

Research Framework: Within the framework of studies on ordinary relations to politics and that of migration studies, this work intends to study the classical object of political socializations within the family structure, by questioning the effects of legal constructions on them.

Objectives: This article observes the contradictions that can arise within the family space (“family community”) due to the exclusion of some of its members from the “national community” because of their legal status.

Methodology: This article is based on thirty narrative interviews conducted with descendants of North African immigrants aged 18 to 45 living in the Île-de-France region and having at least one parent born in a North African country.

ResultsAccording to our results, the different legal status of members of the same family does not have a restrictive effect on political transmissions, as they are part of a wider set of exchanges. However, adaptations and common strategies may be put in place by these members in situations where legal status is imposed as a constraint, particularly at the time of voting. Some categorizations resulting from legal constructs can be illustrated within the family space, such as the “good immigrant/bad immigrant”, and thus put family ties to the test.

ConclusionsAs with any problematic focused on an ethnic minority, the study of political socializations within North African families requires epistemological precautions. The legal status approach allowed us to limit the « culturalist » and « evolutionist » pitfalls. Moreover, an approach that considers political socializations in their global context offers the possibility of capturing elements of understanding of certain phenomena specific to immigrant families.
Contribution: This work represents a first approach to the superposition of these two symbolic spaces. It would be interesting to continue the reflection started in this work, in order to disentangle more precisely what comes under primary socializations and what comes under the effects of legal status.

Mots-clés: socialization, political, politicization, everyday, family, immigrant, North-African, France, citizenship, nationality